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THE SQUARE DRUM - Part Two by Daniel García de la Cuesta

THE SQUARE DRUM - Part Two by Daniel García de la Cuesta

As for the music in the East, it is very necessary that to clarify what we mean when we talk about this issue because, through ignorance, we tend to embrace all cultures, religions and peoples under the general classification that does not respond to the historical reality or cultural or religious. Therefore, in the East, not all are Muslim, Islam is born in a very specific time, the Moors were not Arabs nor Persians speak Arabic. Hence big misunderstandings in many texts.

In the Iberian Peninsula inmigrant musicians from the 8th century onwards and from Baghdad to cities such as Seville or Cordoba, veritable cultural capital of the East at that time, in the hands of Umayyads and Abbasids. In fact, most of the names of instruments that are held in North Africa has a Persian origin, not Arabic.

It seems as, for instance by Julián Ribera, the music was forbidden by Islam and was not always welcome in the palatial surroundings, whether it was almost forbidden. Some were ashamed that their children play tombur for example, a string instrument. But as we see, despite the prohibitions , music and musicians survived there.

According to different authors, there were many translations of Greek treaties of Arabic music and seems to be followed by a series of musical standards and guidelines established from Greek times to expand their knowledge of Islam, which banned music and had to bring musicians from faraway places, for example, to adapt its rich musical literature. We can not forget famous musicians such as Al Ziriab, nicknamed the blackbird, which is said that he knew thousands of songs and played the lute, even said that he added a string instrument used until then.

It is also true that, other documents of the 13th century, we note that throughout the berebería, ie North Africa, the Berbers came to inhabit much of Extremadura, were no musical instruments, while comparing the same sources that absence with the wealth that existed, for example in Seville.

The fact that North Africa kept the use of a square with this name tambourine, daff, only tells us that the names of a Persian tambourine, Arabized by the / f / stop. As for how well it could be square, as in the case of other instruments, a road trip from the mainland territories of different kingdoms in the expulsion of people from north Africa and west peninsula since the early 15th century .

The word daff, DEFF, Doff, duff, including Arabic-speaking peoples, known as various forms of tambourines. It can be a pandeiro with long edges, surrounded by bells or copper, or the percussion instrument of the wandering tribes of the Sahara.

One variety is known as the tambourine bendir, which takes some gut strings on the neck rubbing, and side to side through the hoop to give you brighter, like the drums and boxes. As we shall see later.

It seems that the first known representation of a tambourine round, dating 5800 years ago named adne, is found in fresh Catalhuk, in Anatolia, Turkey, which depicts a scene from groups of people participating in a festival with music and dance.

According to data from the page: www.funjdiaz.net/folklore/07ficha.cfm?id=252

The appearance of images of medieval square panderos in the hands of Arabs bring us plenty of light. Interestingly, these images exist in the Persian world, as we shall see.

Other names for this important study, and can help find a possible meaning to the word ‘dap’, are precisely bendhir, or banda, panda, tambourine, and MEZE tympanum.

In the case of words related to the word, probably Sumerian, bread or pantur, I said that its meaning is linked to skin used in its construction. In this case, we add the Sumerian word MEZE or Mizher, documented in ancient writings from around 4000 years ago, to which authors like Francis Galpin or Kurt Sachs, given the subject of a tambourine used in ritual ceremonies, and the meaning of skin. Currently, Mazhar Mizher or in Egypt, is the name of a tambourine.

Other Sumerian and Akkadian words documented between 4000 and 5000 years, identified as percussion instruments and tambourines, are Alal, Balago, and interestingly, ADAP.

It is also known to use another name for a Persian tambourine that varies depending on the area as dayereh, dayira, Daire, Daire, dareh, Dahar, going by the other languages / d / happened at the initial, as in the Polish tur, atari in Swahili, and corresponds with the term Persian tar, giving its name to string instruments and percussion, by the use of gut or skin in its construction, as we saw.

Other authors think that the word daf is a Persian origin, and although its meaning is not known, it appears linked to an instrument and is documented by several ancient poets.

Tympanon as the Greeks knew that there was a tambourine with dermaton, ie skins.

All this brings us to the same path and meaning to the words of many of the instruments used, both in antiquity, as today.

The employment of strings, usually made of gut, inside the instrument, is still kept, along with other types of tambourines, in places like Asturies, and have many names, including guitar, garish, etc..

Drums also take some of these strings, but always on the outside.

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