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THE SQUARE DRUM – Part One by DANIEL GARCÍA DE LA CUESTA

THE SQUARE DRUM – Part One by DANIEL GARCÍA DE LA CUESTA

While dealing with the study of the instruments, some authors have undertaken the research considering the nomenclature of a particular word in a specific type of instrument, without taking into account that this gives rise to many misunderstandings, leading to many dead end roads that do not provide solutions to study their development and gives us no explanation for its current location, or ancient existence .A tambourine with square, rectangular, or rhomboid form, need not carry a name that identifies it exclusively, but rather in this case, and to distinguish it now, we have to employ a qualifying geometric adjective.
Among other cases, as usual, a name is employed for the way they look or what they look like, the action being played, an onomatopoeia or sound capabilities.
They can also take a combination of options and a numeral. As an example, the sitar, if that means a numeral three and tar means guts, skins, the material they were made and the strings. Rope, in Greek, was the meaning of guts.
The etymology and meaning of the names of the instruments is an important issue to investigate its history and development.
The known use in the mainland of percussion instruments with a square shape is documented in several places, but when this is studied further, its use will occur elsewhere, sometimes very far between.
We know their use, in addition to Rebollar, Peñaparda, Salamanca, in the area of El Aceuchal, in Badajoz; Berzocana, in Cáceres, in Galicia, Asturias and western mountains of North Leon, or the valley of Urgel , Lleida. Also documented its use in France, or Mexico, which we'll discuss later, and in some parts of Portugal.
For example, in the latter case it is called too often andalusian tambourine ,often square, rectangular or rhomboid, named adufe in particular, it is assumed that adufe is the name of a square tambourine, but let’s advance step by step.
Adufe is a name preserved in medieval times in Galicia, and apparently, today, in a vast area between Portuguese regions betweem Baixo Alentexo Guarda, Beira and Tras-Os-Montes. Monsanto, in Castelo Branco, is one of the locations where this is played tambourine.

This, according to the data accessed at the website of the dear friend, researcher and folklorist galego Juanjo Fernandez, www.agaitadofol.com/Apercusion/Opandeiro.php

and other pages, as also the friend, the builder of instruments, Payno Louis, which also offers a guide for those handyman who dare to make your own square tambourine: : www.es-aqui.com/payno/inst/pandero.htm

http://usuarios.lycos.es/serragatinu/pandero.htm

http://perso.wanadoo.es/charrito/otrosinstrumentos.html
Although I have consulted other authors and I will make mention of the documentation can be found easily online via the links provided, and are appearing in some of the pictures that illustrated the article.
Sometimes this tambourine appears almost rhomboid, triangular and hexagonal. Interestingly, this form is not preserved elsewhere, and says the dear friend, researcher and zamoran folklorist, Alberto Jambrina, it seems that this is an adaptation developed by the manner in which the instrument is played between the arms and standing, which makes it somewhat uncomfortable if touched for a long time.
The popular adaptation seems to have closer and lower sides to hold it better, simply.
As the instrument has a different name to "tambourine" and a form other than a round, we tend to equate this name, adufe, of Arab origin in principle, an instrument called the Arab and therefore comes with the people of Arabia ¿ ?, Morocco, The berebería? is, in general, with the Moors, the Moors from where?, with Muslims, which Muslims?
First thing you should know or ask, Where does the term adufe means?.
I have consulted the work of Fasla Dalila, language, literature and music. Contribution to the study of lexical semantics in the lyrical music of the Spanish Middle Ages to the first renaissance, where an exhaustive collection of musical terminology that appears in texts from the 14-16 century, and there is no mention adufe nor any word related with.
Some authors believe, it is not known with certainty, that these words seem an onomatopoeia of the coup occurred on the skin when touched and has a Semitic root.
Without departing from this reasoning, it is possible, I think there are very few tools used in ancient times and now so widely disseminated, such as percussion, who kept calling for an onomatopoeia. Not one of the most used, by any means.
Basically, an onomatopoeia is a transcript of the sounds and writing scripts for a specific language and culture that uses it. It is strange that an onomatopoeia for a pass just like another language and different culture. The perception of the sound of a blow and its transcript, is of particular speakers or those who conceived, each in its own way, and each village takes a linguistic heritage that makes it or not recognize as their own.

It is very rare that an onomatopoeia travels so many frontiers and unifies through time without changing to other linguistic concepts of other people, though, just be a transcription of onomatopoeia sounds very basic, in principle, common. As an example, the bark of a dog seems to be the same throughout the world, but is written in Spanisj wow, waf in French and in English woof and its pronunciation changes. Like if we have the cockcrow in spanish quiquiriquí, cocorico in French and in English cook to doodle doo.

If we accept the idea that it was an onomatopoeia, it might seem then, in a language common to very old people assume that all the onomatopoeic name for himself as the tambourine and known, which is even more difficult to occur, given the extended use of the instrument, time and the long journey of the word. On the other hand, there is data that a word with an object travels from one place to another, with virtually no changes and adapting to the new language to come, and without his new receivers know the meaning of the word come with the new object. I think we do not know the meaning of the word daff simply by the passage of time. I believe that the study of a semantic field of words containing the word helps to know you better and perhaps provide us with any meaning, it probably would be linked to the material used in its construction, especially the skin. This is true in many other instruments and have been documented in the published work on bandurria and the rebec.

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