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SURVIVING FOLK INSTRUMENTS: THE "BANDURRIA"-PART TWO- BY DANIEL GARCÍA DE LA CUESTA This brief summary was adapted by Daniel García de la Cuesta from his book entitled "The bandurria and the rebec", published in 2005. All rights reserved by the author and published under his kind permission.
The organistrum was an invention that allowed for a continuous sound, or without purpose, a string instrument

Organistrum in the Hunterian Psalter (1170) Chartres (1220) and Compostela (1181)

Iconographic details to be taken seriously, are those that provide the manuscripts called Blessed, thanks to its first author Beatus of Liebana। Details Emilianense Beato (930) and Cardenas (1175) The nickelharpa, which is represented in the 14th century, would be another of these instruments as a variant of organistrum. Preserved in northern Europe.
The organistrum, some of the medieval fídulas the zanfonias, the spinet ,the dulcimer , the nickelharpa and the bandurria retain that "8" shape, and a style of music that keeps the use of one or more strings that give a sound of Bass. Which guarantees the European origin of bandurria in counterpoint to the musical style of oriental music, where musical tastes could not sound to drone. The oldest image is 1109.The bow's length employed is very similar to those employed for the Asturian bandurrias.

Hunterian Psalter (1170), Dijon Psalter (1109), Portico Compostela (1181) Capitel Boscherville (1200?) Collegiata Toro (1200?)
Concerning the word "rabil" I believe it is interspersed from the ancient Arabic word rebec and rabé, by their similarity and apply to a musical instrument similar , and since "rebec" is a latin word, I think this word is derived from "tail". Joan Coromines believes that it probably derives from the Latin "rapum"," rapho" in Greek, meaning "turnip", which would refer to the leaf-shaped tail that this tuber has. There are other connotations of these instruments and still used today among other cultures, and this is told in the work discussed at the beginning of the text, as well as extending the information here very brief because of space. Kept therefore live up to our days, an instrument of sheer medieval origin, alive today thanks to its employement on musical traditions in Asturias and Cantabria. Anyone interested in contacting the author of this work can do so via this email:

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